The ecclesiastical jurisdiction of San Luigi has existed alongside its political counterpart, in full communion with the Roman Catholic Church from 1883 until 1899 and 1925 to 1929, and otherwise autonomously as a church in its own right. Throughout its latter history it has served as a demonstration of the unity of faith that is held between the Catholic, Orthodox and Anglican churches, with elements of all three traditions being held in balance by the Prince-Abbots and latterly Archbishops of San Luigi.
Benedictine foundations have in common that they are followers of the Rule of St Benedict, not that they are members of a particular denomination. Today, there are Roman Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran and Old Catholic Benedictines as well as ecumenical communities. While most Benedictines are based in community at a given abbey or monastery, other Benedictines pursue a predominantly solitary and contemplative vocation. The Abbey-Principality was in communion with the late Dom Klaus Schlapps OPR OA, Old Catholic Abbot of the Cistercian Abbey of St Severin, Germany, until his death in 2012 and has had contact with other Old Catholic Benedictines over the years. In 2016 it revived its own Benedictine tradition and now admits men as Benedictines of San Luigi (OSB(SL)).
San Luigi under the extensions of the Syrian Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch
From 1899, under Prince-Abbot Joseph III, San Luigi looked to the Syrian Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch for its jurisdiction, the Old Catholic Church of America having been erected as an autocephalous metropolitanate at the consecration of the Prince-Abbot at the command of the Patriarch in 1892, and the Order of the Crown of Thorns having been re-founded under the same Patriarch in the preceding year. The Syrian Orthodox Church had, however, divided since that time, and the descendants of those bishops responsible for the consecration of Prince-Abbot Joseph III were now to be found in the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church.
Official relations between the Patriarchate of Antioch of the Syrian Orthodox Church and the American clergy continued intact until at least the death of Prince-Abbot Joseph III, but following a visit of the Syrians to the United States in 1928, when the Syrians requested a substantial increase in financial contributions from the Americans and were refused, matters deteriorated. In 1938, as a result of Anglican pressure, the then-Patriarch of Antioch was persuaded to issue a semi-literate statement of repudiation of those clergy who were in succession from Prince-Abbot Joseph III, and who had previously been accepted into intercommunion with the Patriarchate. However, the Malankara Syrian Orthodox Church did not repudiate Prince-Abbot Joseph III and continued to recognize him and those clergy who were in his succession.
The Order of Antioch
Originally formed in 1928 as an act of solidarity among the Syrian-descended clergy in the United States and the United Kingdom, the Order of Antioch today is an international religious association of clergy following the Western Orthodox tradition. The Order of Antioch is a member of the International Council of Community Churches, which is a member of the World Council of Churches, Churches Uniting in Christ and the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA. Like the Abbey-Principality, it maintains a relationship of friendship with the Malankara Syrian Orthodox Church, which it regards as its parent body. Since 2019, it has been administered by the Apostolic Episcopal Church (see below).
The re-establishment of the ecclesial jurisdiction of San Luigi under Patriarch Anthony Aneed
In response to the situation with the Syrians, the successor of Prince-Abbot Joseph III, Prince-Abbot Edmond I, formed an alliance with Patriarch Anthony Aneed (1879-1970) (pictured right). Aneed was a bishop of the uniate Melkite Greek Catholic Church who, on 10 September 1944, convinced that the Melkite expatriate community must break from Rome’s influence, established the Byzantine Universal (Catholic) and Orthodox Church of the Americas. He has continued to be recognized by the Melkite Church to this day. In 1945, Patriarch Aneed joined with Archbishops Lowell Paul Wadle and Edgar Ramon Verostek (who would be a consecrator of Prince-Abbot Edmond II) to form the American Concordat Exarchate of America.
On 1 January 1946, Patriarch Aneed was enthroned as the first Patriarch of the Byzantine Universal (Catholic) and Orthodox Church of the Americas. On the same occasion he formally re-established the jurisdiction of San Luigi, installing Prince-Abbot Edmond I as Archbishop of San Luigi, Grand Master of the Order of the Crown of Thorns and additionally appointing him as Titular Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia in the Byzantine Universal (Catholic) and Orthodox Church of the Americas.
Patriarch Aneed also conditionally consecrated Prince-Abbot Edmond I assisted by two other Byzantine bishops, Lowell Paul Wadle and Henry Kleefisch. This act ensured that the episcopal orders of Prince-Abbot Edmond I would be recognized by the Melkite community. The major reason for this was that the Melkites by custom require three bishops to consecrate, whereas the Roman Catholic Church accepts solo consecration as valid. Prince-Abbot Edmond I’s 1923 consecration by Prince-Abbot Joseph III had been performed solo.
During the 1960s San Luigi developed close relations with the Orthodox Catholic Patriarchate of America and Byelorussian Patriarchate of St Andrew the First-Called Apostle under Patriarch Peter II (Peter A. Zhurawetsky) (1901-94) (pictured left) and its daughter church the American Orthodox Catholic Church, which between its foundation in 1961 and 1964 was led by Archbishop Robert Schuyler Zeiger (1929-99). Both of these churches had close connexions with the canonical North American Old Roman Catholic Church led by Archbishop Hubert Augustus Rogers (1887-1976), the duly appointed and elected successor of Archbishop Carmel Henry Carfora (1878-1958). Archbishop Zeiger was consecrated by Patriarch Zhurawetsky assisted by bishops Hubert A. Rogers, James Hubert Rogers and Julian Lester Smith, all of the NAORCC, on 1 July 1961. The Orthodox Catholic Patriarchate was a founder member of the Holy Synod of the Orthodox Catholic Churches and was paternally affiliated with the Ecumenical Patriarchate.
Prince-Abbot Edmond I consecrated his successor, George A. Lyman (1938-98) (who would become Prince-Abbot Edmond II upon his resignation on 16 February 1962), on two occasions. In the first of these, on 8 May 1960, he was assisted by Count Michel L’Estrange (Hugh Michael Strange), who was at that time the heir-designate to San Luigi. On 29 December 1961, by which time Strange had resigned from his position as heir-designate, Edmond I again consecrated Lyman assisted by Old Roman Catholic Archbishop Emile Rodriguez y Fairfield (1912-2005). Notwithstanding the efficacy of these acts, it was the wish of Edmond I that his successor should be enthroned after his death in a public ceremony, at which Archbishop Zeiger would conditionally consecrate him, assisted by Archbishops Fairfield and Edgar Ramon Verostek, who was an Old Roman Catholic bishop who was part of the 1944 American Concordat Exarchate under Patriarch Aneed. This ceremony duly took place on 14 March 1963 at the Macarthur Community Church in San Pablo, California.
The result of these acts was that the episcopal orders of San Luigi were not only recognized by the Roman Catholic Church (as had been published by the Holy See in respect of Prince-Abbot Joseph III in 1925) but were now accepted as valid by the Melkite Greek Catholic Church (who recognized Patriarch Aneed) and by those churches and hierarchs who had recognized the episcopate of Patriarch Zhurawetsky, which had been duly transmitted to Archbishop Zeiger. These latter were as follows:
(1) the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, H.B. Athenagoras I (1886-1972) (pictured above at his meeting with Pope Paul VI in 1964)
>>Letter from the Exarch to the Ecumenical Patriarch (Greek Archdiocese of North and South America), conveying Apostolic Blessings of the Ecumenical Patriarch, 4 April 1951
(2) the Pope and Patriarch of Alexandria and all Africa, H.H. Nicolaos VI (1915-86)
>>Letter from the Patriarch of Alexandria, 29 June 1978
(3) the Primate of the Orthodox Church of America, H.B. Metropolitan Ireney (Bekish) (1892-1981) (His predecessor, Metropolitan Leonty, was a member of the Order of the Crown of Thorns)
>>Letter from Metropolitan Ireney, April 1976
The episcopate of Archbishop Zeiger had also been affirmed as valid in a Roman Catholic diocesan newspaper, the Denver Catholic Register, of 26 April 1962:
>>Denver Catholic Register, 26 April 1962
The newsletter of Patriarch Zhurawetsky, Our Missionary, was under the editorship of the late Most Revd. Prince Kermit of Miensk, subsequently Royal Patron of the San Luigi Orders. He was ordained priest and then consecrated by Patriarch Zhurawetsky on 1 November 1970. The present Prince-Abbot of San Luigi succeeded him as Prince of Miensk and Ecclesiast of All Byelorussia on his death in 2015 (see below).
In the October-November 1988 edition of Our Missionary, Patriarch Zhurawetsky addresses a message to the Patriarchate, in which he lists his bishops by name; within that list we find both Prince-Abbot Edmond II and Archbishop Zeiger.
Finally, a direct Apostolic link exists between Archbishop Zeiger (pictured above) and the present Prince-Abbot, whose consecrator, Archbishop Bertil Persson, was consecrated by Archbishop Zeiger on 14 June 1994:
In the present day, the recognitions accorded to the ecclesial jurisdiction of San Luigi have been augmented by the ecumenical work of the Apostolic Episcopal Church during the period from the 1970s onwards. The Apostolic Episcopal Church, in which Prince-Abbot Edmond II was a bishop, entered into intercommunion with Patriarch Zhurawetsky and was also in intercommunion with the jurisdictions of Archbishops Fairfield and Verostek. This brought about friendly contact with many of the Orthodox Churches as well as strengthening links with the Anglican Communion (through an intercommunion agreement with the Philippine Independent Catholic Church in 1988), the Continuing Anglican movement and the canonical Old Catholic churches. Today, the present Prince-Abbot also serves the Apostolic Episcopal Church as its fifth Primate.
In recent years, cordial contact has resumed between our jurisdiction and the present-day representatives of the Syrian Orthodox tradition from which we descend directly (the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church), and that church has issued letters affirming the details of the consecration of Prince-Abbot Joseph III in 1892.
In 2019, San Luigi entered into an agreement of full intercommunion and mutual recognition with the Holy Synod of the Patriarchate of (the) Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom under Patriarch Mor Cherubim Abu-Seifein Akiiki.
The Byelorussian Patriarchate of St Andrew the First-Called Apostle
In 2015, upon the death of the late Prince Kermit of Miensk, the adoptive father of the Prince-Abbot of San Luigi, the ecclesial jurisdiction of San Luigi entered into personal union with the Byelorussian Patriarchate of St Andrew the First-Called Apostle, which had been founded under Patriarch Zhurawetsky.
The Apostolic Episcopal Church (The Holy Eastern Catholic and Apostolic Orthodox Church)
The Prince-Abbot of San Luigi was appointed as a bishop of the Apostolic Episcopal Church in 2008 and in 2015 succeeded as Primate and Presiding Bishop. The Apostolic Episcopal Church, founded in 1925 and recognized by the Statutes of the State of New York in 1932, is an autonomous and fully independent Christian church that combines the heritage of the Chaldean Catholic Church, of which it is an extension, with that of traditional Anglicanism. It is thus one of the older separated or “continuing” Anglican bodies currently in existence. With a strong ecumenical focus, the AEC worked closely during the 1940s with the Catholicate of the West, a union of the smaller sacramental churches, eventually absorbing the Catholicate in 1977.
Over the years, a number of churches have been absorbed into our jurisdiction. A list of these is provided at the page below.